- 1 What if yeast infection of the intestine is cause for concern?
- 2 Risk factors for Candida fungi
- 3 Complications
- 4 Diagnosis of the yeast infection
- 5 General principles of treatment
- 6 Treatment with drugs
- 7 Antifungal agents: Diflucan and others
- 8 Probiotics and prebiotics for yeast infection
- 9 Medicines used in the treatment of yeast infection of the intestine
- 10 Diet, dietary rules for yeast infection
- 11 Features of treatment yeast infection in women
- 12 Tactics of complex therapy
- 13 Features of treatment during pregnancy
- 14 Features of treatment yeast infection in children of different ages
Reproduction in the intestines of pathogenic fungi causes candidiasis, which begins to spread throughout the body. The initial growth of the Candida flora in the thick and small intestines leads to the penetration of fungi into the blood and the damage to important organs.
Cure a fungal infection of the genitourinary system, kidneys, lungs is possible when suppressing mycosis at the source of infection. The appointment of antimycotics, probiotic and prebiotic drugs, the use of folk remedies is carried out taking into account the depth of the process, the age category, contraindications, the state of the immune system of patients.
What if yeast infection of the intestine is cause for concern?
Candidiasis of the intestine means pathological changes, which are based on the active reproduction of Candida fungi in the intestinal parts of the mucous membrane. If the disease is not treated, the fungus spreads its harmful activity to other tissues and organs – the stomach, liver, genitalia, bronchial tree, pancreas, lungs, kidneys, spleen.
Candidiasis of the intestine is the source of fungal infection of the whole organism.
Initially, fungal populations are constantly in the intestines, without causing harm. But with the fall of immunity and the creation of conditions unsuitable for the life of beneficial bacteria in the intestine, fungi give explosive mass growth, turning into pathogens that are dangerous for the whole organism.
Risk factors for Candida fungi
Among the general factors that previously have an intestine for the emergence of candidiasis, it should be noted:
- Low immune protection.
- Unbalanced food intake.
- Active, long-term therapy with antibacterial drugs, which leads to suppression of beneficial intestinal microflora with simultaneous excessive multiplication of Candida.
Candidiasis of the intestine is dangerous for possible complications in the form of:
- Ruptures of the mucosa and tissues of the intestinal wall (so-called intestinal perforation).
- Spreading of the ulcerative process to surrounding organs.
- Internal bleeding.
- Generalization of candidiasis with the introduction of fungi into the kidneys, liver, lungs, spleen.
Development of mycosis sepsis (penetration of fungi into the blood and infection of the whole body). Mortality in this form of candidiasis reaches 28 – 56% (in patients with acute leukemia or after transplantation).
Diagnosis of the yeast infection
Diagnosis of fungal infection of the large and small intestines is very important for proper treatment.
Specificity of candidiasis in the intestines by most gastroenterologists is not studied too deeply. Many patients have erased symptoms of intestinal lesions, and the diagnosis of endoscopic examinations is often erroneous.
When identifying individual ulcers on the intestinal mucosa, medicine lingers with the diagnosis, and specialized studies for the presence of fungal infection are not conducted.
Practical medicine knows very well that the fungus in the intestines is often an early sign of diseases in the syndrome of immunodeficiency. Therefore, in order to correctly diagnose, it is necessary to observe and analyze the general condition of the patient.
General principles of treatment
For effective treatment of intestinal candidiasis, the gastroenterologist prescribes a therapy regimen with the following basic directions:
- Application of antifungal agents.
- Elimination of the intestinal dysbiosis accompanying candidiasis.
- Common restorative drugs and immunostimulants.
- Treatment of background disease that caused candidiasis.
Treatment with drugs
With candidiasis of the intestine, competent therapy consists in the appointment of:
- antimycotics, taking into account the type of candidiasis, depth of lesion, age and contraindications;
- antibacterial drugs (included in the scheme of therapy, if candidiasis is accompanied by the addition of other pathogens);
- drugs that restore the microflora of the thick and small intestine;
- therapy with the use of immunostimulants.
Antifungal agents: Diflucan and others
With candidiasis in a non-invasive form, use is taken in the intestines of antifungal drugs – Fluconazole (Diflucan), Ketoconazole, Itraconazole. Scheme of treatment, dosage is selected individually, taking into account the body weight. Form of application – tablets or intravenous injections.
A serious drawback is that in tableted form there is almost complete absorption of funds in the upper part of the intestine and they do not reach the ileum, where the bulk of the pathogens is concentrated. Therefore, treatment with injections is more preferable. In addition, the use of these antimycotic drugs is often accompanied by adverse events, one of which is toxic hepatitis.
Important! To destroy intestinal fungi, it is necessary to use funds that are not adsorbed in the intestine, and with a duration of treatment up to 10 days or more.
The source of the spread of fungi that cause the spread of fungi throughout the body (systemic candidiasis) is the intestine, so without suppressing the proliferation of Candida in it, antifungal treatment is ineffective or helps only for a short time.
To almost not adsorbed antifungal drugs include levorin, nystatin, Pimafucin (natamycin). The use of Nystatin, Levorin, as well as adsorbed drugs, often has side effects (nausea, vomiting, allergies, diarrhea, toxic hepatitis).
Pimafucin is an antimycotic antibacterial agent with a strong potential acting on many pathogenic yeast fungi Candida. In comparison with nystatin, Pimafucin has a higher efficacy and fewer side effects. In medical practice, cases of resistance of Candida to natamycin have not been revealed. With repeated and long-term use of pimafucine, there is no getting used to it. In this regard, it is possible to use a minimal dose that suppresses the growth of fungi. Pimafucin in tablets is almost not absorbed, actively working in the intestines.
When candidiasis of the large intestine, rectal suppositories are used. The average approximate course is up to two weeks.
The question of timely detection and treatment of intestinal candidiasis is very important for preventing the development of candidiasis in the patients receiving antituberculosis drugs, radiation and chemotherapy, in the form of systemic (spread to organs) and generalized (with penetration of fungi into the blood). Here again, the use of nonabsorbable antimycotic agents is more preferable, since even their long-term and repeated use hardly affects the action of other drugs.
Probiotics and prebiotics for yeast infection
Candidiasis of the intestine is always accompanied by a dysbacteriosis, therefore simultaneously with antimycotic preparations prescribe probiotics, which are living microorganisms representing normal flora of the intestine. Acidophilic bifido- and lactobacilli help to balance the composition and concentration of microorganisms in the intestine and have a harmful effect on pathogenic microbes and fungi.
Qualitative probiotics show resistance to the action of antibiotics and antimycotic drugs, so they can be used simultaneously.
Prebiotics, also necessary for candidiasis, are chemical organic substances that are not absorbed in the intestines, but stimulate the creation of optimal conditions for the growth of normal microflora (that is, for the same living probiotics).
Temporary secondary: deterioration of appetite, diarrhea, nausea, skin rash, hives, fever, headache, hives, drowsiness.
Medicines used in the treatment of yeast infection of the intestine
Adsorbed antimycotic agents.
1. Fluconazole (Diflucan). In comparison with ketoconazole is more effective with fewer side effects. Does not activate liver enzymes, does not cause toxic hepatitis.
Capsules and syrup (0.5%).
In pediatrics, pills are allowed from 4 years. Syrup Diflucan – from the period of the newborn.
2. Ketoconazole. Actively inhibits the growth of yeast fungi.
Non-adsorbing antimycotic agents in the intestine.
1. Nystatin. The approximate duration of therapy is up to 14 days.
2. Natamycin (Pimafucin). Allowed with the carrying of the child, breastfeeding, in pediatrics – the newborn. At first, there may be passing nausea and diarrhea.
Antimicrobial preparations, normalizing the intestinal microflora. They are used in the treatment and prevention of intestinal dysbiosis accompanying candidiasis.
1. Enterol. The drug is antidiarrheal, inhibits the activity of fungi Candida. Normalizes the balance of the intestinal microflora. It is not recommended simultaneous reception with antimycotic drugs – the effectiveness of Enterol is reduced. Contraindications: hypersensitivity, allergic reaction.
Prebiotics are the means that contain bacteria that are natural for intestinal microflora. They preserve the acidity (pH) favorable for the life of useful bacteria. They show an average antibacterial effect on harmful microbes, stimulating the mechanisms of immunity.
2. Laktusan, Maxilac, Duphalac, Inulin, Candinorm. Reproduction and normal environment for the vital activity of useful intestinal microflora are activated. The treatment regimen and dosages are selected by the gastroenterologist, taking into account the age and on the basis of the individual characteristics of the course of the disease. Among the side effects may appear flatulence (briefly).
Probiotics, live useful microorganisms for therapeutic purposes, nutritional supplements, dietary supplements containing live microcultures. Basically – bifidobacteria, lactobacillus.
1. Lactic Bacteria, Coli bacteria, Bifidumbacterin. They are active against most pathogenic microorganisms.
Administration of the drugs according to the instructions. There are no side effects. Contraindications – only individual intolerance.
2. Linex. Contains lactobacillus – for the small intestine, bifidobacteria – for the large intestine, provides “therapeutic” bacteria in balanced proportions.
Produces acids, creating an environment that is destructive for the growth of pathogenic fungi. Allowed for children under 2 years. Among the side effects may appear flatulence (briefly).
Diet, dietary rules for yeast infection
Correct and effective treatment of intestinal mycosis is difficult to implement if the patient does not follow a certain diet and basic nutrition rules.
Candida fungus produces a large number of toxic substances – toxins that penetrate the blood through the walls of blood vessels and poison the entire body. Disruption of the intestine promotes active propagation of pathogens.
The most toxic substance produced by fungi is acetaldehyde, rapidly converting to ethanol. Patients suffering from candidiasis often in the mornings feel an unpleasant feeling of hangover, apathy and fatigue.
Precise selection of products speeds up treatment, leaves fungal parasites without food, slowing their reproduction and relieving the body of toxins.
Developed by the rules of the diet during the period of defeat of the body Candida requires exclusion from food:
- fructose, which means – all sweet fruit juices, mashed potatoes;
- honey, jam, white, brown sugar;
- smoked products, spicy dishes, spices;
- white bread, wheat flour and dishes made of it such as pancakes, pancakes (contain yeast);
- sweets, muffins, cakes (fungi, like ordinary food yeast, “love” the sweet environment);
- glucose-rich fruit – bananas, figs, grapes;
- vegetables – sugar beet, potatoes, pumpkin, carrots, corn;
- reduce the consumption of coffee and tea to a minimum (the substances in them inhibit the effect of the means that kill the fungi).
The products required in the complex treatment of intestinal candidiasis should contain a small amount of carbohydrates, a sufficient number of proteins, minerals:
- low-fat, stewed, boiled or steamed meat, fish, eggs;
- dill, coriander, parsley (rough for the stomach product, therefore – in small quantities), arugula, basil;
- all kinds of lettuce, Peking cabbage;
- zucchini, beans, tomatoes, cauliflower, cucumber, white cabbage;
- low-fat cottage cheese, sour cream;
- strawberries, blueberries, red bilberries;
- oats in any form – mushrooms, jelly;
- yogurt unsweetened, yogurt, kefir, fermented baked milk, acidophilic drinks;
Important! Curing one disease, one must remember others. Some products that are useful in candidiasis, can be contraindicated in gastritis, ulcerative diseases, inflammation of the kidneys, liver. Therefore, the choice of a food set must take into account all contraindications for a particular patient.
Features of treatment yeast infection in women
In women, very often intestinal candidiasis is accompanied by fungal infection of the entire genitourinary system, and simultaneous yeast vulvovaginitis (in common parlance “milkmaid”). In this case, a combined approach to the treatment of both pathologies is rational, since unilateral therapeutic actions will not lead to complete recovery in the presence of an undamaged Candida focus.
Thrush in women is often one of the symptoms of intestinal candidiasis.
Vaginal candidiasis manifests itself:
- in severe itching of the external genitalia;
- in yellowish-white, cottage cheese-like vaginal discharge;
- in a burning sensation and frequency of urination.
Exacerbation of thrush is often found before menstruation. This is due to a change in the vaginal environment towards increased acidity (the mouth of fungi occurs with an acidity of pH in the range 2.5 – 3.0).
Tactics of complex therapy
1. Pimafucin in tablet form – in the treatment of intestinal and vaginal mycoses. At the same time, the use of Pimafucin suppositories used intravaginally for local exposure to fungi of the vaginal mucosa (up to 7 days) is prescribed. With concomitant anal candidiasis, suppositories are also used.
2. Diflucan (Fluconazole) is used in capsules at the same time as local use of Terginan, Neo-Penotran, Clotrimazole, Butoconazole suppositories. Douchement with 0.5-2% solution of baking soda is shown before the introduction of vaginal suppositories.
Features of treatment during pregnancy
Up to 85 pregnant women out of 100 subjects find themselves a thrush. This is especially common in the first and last trimesters. Doctors believe that pregnancy is a factor provoking candidiasis due to the growing progesterone at this time.
The use of Diflucan (Fluconazole) during pregnancy is considered by many to be unreasonable. It is used only in extremely serious cases of fungal infections, when the possible benefits of the drug for a pregnant woman are much higher than the risk for a child.
Fluconazole is accumulated in breast milk, so the use of the drug during the period of breastfeeding is contraindicated.
Pimafucin is often used during pregnancy. Specialists consider it to be one of the safest and most effective drugs against Candida fungi, even when applied in the first weeks after conception. There was no negative effect on the fetus during the studies.
Features of treatment yeast infection in children of different ages
Candidiasis in infants with weakened immunity can carry a serious threat, penetrating into organs, tissues and blood. Thrush in the baby’s mouth can always be a symptom of a more formidable form of fungal infection. The main thing in the treatment of candidiasis in pediatrics is to prevent this development.
Many questions arise about Diflucan, which is allowed for babies. But the fact is that the active substance Diflucan is fluconazole, which is not used in children under 4 years of age, in pregnant and lactating women.
Important! Since the medical experts themselves did not agree on the use of Diflucan in children, a high degree of caution is required when using it for children under the age of four.
Diflucan in the form of a suspension is often prescribed even for newborns with intestinal candidiasis. The duration of therapy depends on the weakness of the immune system, concomitant diseases and neglect of the process. As a rule, the treatment lasts from 1 week to 2 months. According to observations of pediatricians, Diflucan is easily tolerated by children of different ages.